MoAZ-6014 is just such a road car. This is a scraper designed for earthmoving and transport operations. A self-propelled machine capable of removing soil in layers. Roughly speaking, the principle of operation can be compared with a planer. The scraper collects soil in the trailer, and then unloads it.
The scraper starts to work. Photo: Youtube.com
Although MoAZ-6014 seems to be a single vehicle, in fact, it consists of two parts. The first is a tractor with the index 6442. The second is a semi-trailer. The car itself is single-axle, respectively, it is not adapted for separate work.
MoAZ-6014 is produced at the Mogilev Automobile Plant named after Kirov. The enterprise was founded in the Soviet Union before the war - in 1935. Initially, trucks were repaired there - first of all, military ones. In 1941, they managed to take the enterprise to Samara, more precisely, to Kuibyshev - that was the name of this city then.
Interestingly, during the war, the evacuated plant reached serious heights - they produced engines for aircraft. And not to some "Corn" there, but to the IL-2 - the famous attack aircraft. This hints at a high level of training of workers and engineers.
First produced MAZ-529. Photo: Youtube.com
After the end of the war, the enterprise returned to Mogilev, which happened infrequently in the USSR. Usually the evacuated factories remained in new places. An example is IMZ, where Ural motorcycles are still produced.
After the war, the company was engaged in the conversion of trucks into truck cranes and special vehicles. For this, the chassis was used:
Their almost original models in Mogilev began to be produced at the suggestion of the Minsk Automobile Plant. It happened in 1958, when the production of MAZ-529 was transferred from there. A couple of years later, a group of designers was sent to Mogilev, who developed special construction equipment - primarily earthmoving.
MoAZ-546 are still preserved. Photo: Youtube.com
The debut scraper under the MoAZ brand appeared in 1969. It was a model with an index of 546. As for the MoAZ-6014, this technique was mass-produced from 1989 to 2006.
Truck tractors produced at the Mogilev Automobile Plant named after Kirov are quite specific. They made an indelible impression on people who first saw them. It looks more like something cosmic, only the military knew that this miracle was originally developed for the needs of the army.
The main feature of the MoAZ-6014 is the chassis design. It is all-wheel drive, which is not surprising - after all, there is only one axis. Chassis frame - in the middle there is a coupling device for a semi-trailer.
That's how scrapers push. Photo: Youtube.com
The car has an interesting steering - the wheels do not turn. Maneuvers are carried out by turning the front and rear sections using a pair of hydraulic cylinders. The semi-trailer is typical for all tractors. Its wheels are also out of control.
The main purpose of scrapers is construction, more precisely, earthmoving and transport work. Although the "head" is quite versatile, it was also used as:
✅ Airfield tractors
✅ Specialized platform tugs designed to transport bulldozers and other construction vehicles
✅ Rocket carriers
It is interesting that initially single-axle tractors were made for the army. But in fact, more than 80% of the equipment produced at the Mogilev Automobile Plant named after Kirov was used as scrapers. They built roads throughout the Soviet Union.
MoAZ-6014 is a self-propelled scraper. Its only purpose is road construction. Despite its strange appearance, the technique allows you to simplify earthmoving. Do not need a bulldozer, excavator and dump truck. MoAZ-6014 is able to handle this on its own.
The scraper collects soil into the body. Photo: Youtube.com
By the way, often to simplify the work, the equipment was set up for deep soil removal. The tractor could not cope with such a load, so it was pushed by a bulldozer. In order not to damage the semi-trailer, one or more large tires were hung at the back. Although, a powerful bumper is made with the expectation of such procedures.
The scraper is capable of performing a wide range of earthworks:
✅ Clearing sites
✅ Road foundation preparation
✅ Laying sand and gravel mix
✅ Rapid and massive movement of soil during the construction of reservoirs and dams
The main condition is that the scraper should be unloaded at a distance of up to 3 km. For longer distances, it is more profitable to use a bunch of dump trucks with an excavator.
This impromptu road remains after the first pass of the scraper. Photo: Youtube.com
MoAZ-6014 moves along the site, removing a layer of soil with a special knife located in the front of the body. Then everything is closed, and the scraper leaves for the place intended for unloading. This process usually takes place on the go. The soil is unloaded gradually, providing a fairly uniform coverage.
The scraper engine is naturally located under the hood of the tractor. Since the equipment is designed for harsh conditions, it has a powerful diesel engine. This is YaMZ-238AM2 for 225 liters. With. Only atmospheric power units were installed on MoAZ-6014. They were specially deformed a little to increase traction at low revs.
The technology is amazing. Photo: Youtube.com
The working volume of the engine is 14,86 liters. This engine is structurally similar and unified with the entire YaMZ-238 family.
Gearbox scraper mechanical, four-speed. A system for switching from higher to lower gears and vice versa has been implemented. This is done in approximately the same way as on wheeled tractors.
The technique turns due to the “breaking” hinge-type frame. This decision was copied from the K-700, better known as the Kirovets.
MoAZ-6014 is capable of transporting up to 16 tons in the back of a semi-trailer. Judging by the stories of drivers working on this technique, she was not afraid of overloads. Up to 11 cubic meters were placed in the body - this is if with a slide.
A tire for a bulldozer is visible at the back. Photo: Youtube.com
The cutting thickness of the soil is adjustable, but the maximum value is 45 cm. If the soil is rocky or frozen, the scraper had to be pushed by a bulldozer. In a number of cases, complex sections were previously loosened.
Advantages of technology
The main advantage of MoAZ-6014 is, of course, versatility. But drivers who have worked on such scrapers, first of all, call the simplicity of design and a high level of maintainability.
The car began to be produced at the end of the Soviet era, and stopped in 2006, so spare parts are easy to get. Moreover, the Mogilev Automobile Plant named after Kirov is still working. It is considered the largest enterprise for the production of specialized road equipment in the CIS.
This technique still works today. Photo: Youtube.com
For primary processing and preparation of sites for road construction, the scraper is ideal. Especially if finances are limited or there are simply no necessary technical and human resources. Therefore, MoAZ-6014 is still relevant.
Somewhere this technique was replaced by more modern models. In our country, foreign-made scrapers have often been used in recent years. But due to economic sanctions against the Russian Federation, there are problems with the supply of spare parts and components. But for the Belarusian technology, everything is in stock or on order.
It is unlikely that MoAZ-6014 scrapers will disappear in the near future. Thanks to their versatility and Soviet reliability, they will help build roads for a long time to come.